The Data Clubs project explores how middle school youth engage with data, make sense of datasets, and ask questions of data. Below are some examples of the project’s ground-breaking research that elucidate how Data Clubs participants learn to use big datasets and think critically about data.

Higgins, T., Mokros, J., Rubin, A., Sagrans, J. (2023). Students’ approaches to exploring the relationship between categorical variables. Teaching Statistics, 45(S1), S52-S66. URL:

Mokros, J., Higgins, T., Sagrans, J., & Rubin, A. (2023). Characteristics of good datasets for 10–14-year-old youth. International Association for Statistics Education Satellite Conference, July 11–13, Toronto, Canada.

Sagrans, J., Mokros, J., Voyer, C., Sagrans, J., & Harvey, M. (2022, Jan/Feb). Data science meets science teaching. The Science Teacher

Higgins, T., Rubin, A., Mokros, J., Sagrans, J., & Ren-Mitchell, A. (2021) When the data drive the learning. Proceedings of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) Satellite Conference.

Harvey, M., Mokros, J., Sagrans, J., & Voyer, C. (2020). What makes them tick? Middle school data science explorations of ticks and Lyme disease. Connected Science Learning, 2(3).

Mokros, J., Rubin, R., & Sagrans, J. (2020, October 19). Data science and the epidemiology of COVID: Educating youth through out-of-school programs [conference presentation]. Association of Science and Technology Centers (ASTC) Virtual 2020 Annual Conference. (links to slides)

Rubin, A. (2020) Learning to reason with data:  How did we get here and what do we know?  Journal of the Learning Sciences, 29, 154-164.

Rubin, A., Higgins, T., Mokros, J., & Sagrans, J. (2020). Data Clubs: Introducing Middle School Youth to Data Science. 2020 STEM for All Video Showcase.

Mokros, J., & Rubin, A. (2019). The Wave of Data Science Is upon Us: Are Youth Ready? Are You Ready?  Poster presented at the Association of Science Technology (ASTC) annual meeting, September 2019. Toronto, Canada.

Rubin, A. (2019a). Data Clubs: Introducing Middle School Students to the Power of Data. Invited Symposium on “Data Science at School Level” at the Joint Statistics Meeting, July 2019. Denver, CO.

Rubin, A., & Mokros, J. (2019a). Data Modeling in the World of Big Data. Paper presented at the Statistical Reasoning, Thinking and Literacy workshop, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, July 2019. (presentation slides)

Rubin, A. (2019d). What Should Students Know about Data? Invited talk in Presidential Session, Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning (CSCL) conference, June 2019. Lyon, France.

Rubin, A. (2019c). Facebook or Instagram? Teens Explore Data About Technology Use. Hands On!, TERC, Cambridge, MA, Spring 2019.

Rubin, A. (2019b). Designing Data Experiences for Middle School Youth. Science Education Department Seminar Series, Harvard University, February 2019. Cambridge, MA.

Rubin, A., & Mokros, J. (2019b). Designing and Exploring a Model for Data Science Learning for Middle School Youth. One-page project description for NSF.

Rubin, A. (2018). Data Clubs for Middle School Youth: Engaging Young People in Data Science. Data Science Education webinar series, sponsored by Concord Consortium, September 24, 2018. (video of webinar)

Rubin, A., & Mokros, J. (2018). Data Clubs for Middle School Youth: Engaging Young People in Data Science. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS10), Kyoto, Japan, July 8–3, 2018.